Title Ice hardness in winter sports
Author Poirier, L.; Lozowski, E.P.; Thompson, R.I.
Author Affil Poirier, L., University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Calgary, AB, Canada. Other: University of Alberta, Canada
Source Cold Regions Science and Technology, 67(3), p.129-134, . Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0165- 232X
Publication Date July 2011
Notes In English. Based on Publisher- supplied data GeoRef Acc. No: 309692
Index Terms friction; hardness; ice; ice surface; measurement; models; temperature; mass
Abstract The goal of this work is to determine the ice hardness for athletic ice surfaces relevant to skating and bobsleigh. The results will be used to adapt F.A.S.T. 1.0, a computational model (Penny et al., 2007) used to calculate the coefficient of friction between a steel blade and ice. An important aspect of the model is the size of the contact area between the blade and the ice surface on which it slides. We assume that the apparent contact area is determined by the ratio of the force applied by the blade onto the ice and the hardness of the ice surface. In order to determine the dynamic ice hardness, we dropped steel balls ranging from 8-540 g onto several different ice surfaces from heights between 0.3-1.2 m. The durations of the impacts between the balls and the ice were on the order of 10-4s. We determined the ice hardness by measuring the diameter of the indentation craters. Our data suggests that the dynamic ice hardness P in these athletic facilities varies with the temperature of the ice surface T according to, P-(T)=((-.6.4)T+14.72.1) MPa. Our analysis of the effect of air humidity on ice hardness was inconclusive.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.coldregions.2011.02.005
Publication Type journal article
Record ID 65006406