Title Pathways of PFOA to the Arctic; variabilities and contributions of oceanic currents and atmospheric transport and chemistry sources
Author Stemmler, I.; Lammel, G.
Author Affil Stemmler, I., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Other: Masaryk University, Czech Republic
Source Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(20), p.9965-9980, . Publisher: Copernicus, Katlenburg-Lindau, International. ISSN: 1680- 7316
Publication Date 2010
Notes In English. Includes supplement: http://www.atmos-chem- phys.net/10/9965/2010/acp-10-9965-2010- supplement. zip; published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions: 3 May 2010, http://www.atmos-chem-phys- discuss.net/10/11577/2010/acpd-10-11577-2010. html; accessed in May, 2011. 68 refs. GeoRef Acc. No: 310391
Index Terms atmospheric circulation; environmental effects; geochemistry; ocean currents; pollution; statistical analysis; Arctic Ocean; Arctic region; acids; air pollution; atmospheric transport; boreal environment; chemical waste; currents; fluorinated compounds; gaseous phase; general circulation models; industrial waste; industry; nonpoint sources; ocean circulation; organic compounds; perfluorooctanoic acid; physicochemical properties; pollutants; sea water; seasonal variations; sinks; terrestrial environment; time series analysis; transport; two-dimensional models
Abstract Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds are industrial chemicals in use for decades which resist degradation in the environment and seem to accumulate in polar regions. Transport of PFOA was modeled using a spatially resolved global multicompartment model including fully coupled three-dimensional ocean and atmosphere general circulation models, and two-dimensional top soil, vegetation surfaces, and sea ice compartments. In addition to primary emissions, the formation of PFOA in the atmosphere from degradation of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol was included as a PFOA source. Oceanic transport, delivered 14.85.0 (8-23) t a-1 to the Arctic, strongly influenced by changes in water transport, which determined its interannual variability. This pathway constituted the dominant source of PFOA to the Arctic. Formation of PFOA in the atmosphere led to episodic transport events (timescale of days) into the Arctic with small spatial extent. Deposition in the polar region was found to be dominated by wet deposition over land, and shows maxima in boreal winter. The total atmospheric deposition of PFOA in the Arctic in the 1990s was ~1 t a-1, much higher than previously estimated, and is dominated by primary emissions rather than secondary formation.
URL http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/9965/2010/acp-10-9965-2010.pdf
Publication Type journal article
Record ID 65007203