Title The instrumental period
Author Turner, J. (editor); Adams, B.; Arthern, R.; Atkinson, A.; Barbante, C.; Bargagli, R.; Bergstrom, D.; Bertler, N.A.N.; Bindschadler, R.; Bockheim, J.; Boutron, C.; Bromwich, D.; Chown, S.; Comiso, J.; Convey, P.; Cook, A.; di Prisco, G.; Fahrbach, E.; Fastook, J.; Forcada, J.; Gili, J.; Gugliemin, M.; Gutt, J.; Hellmer, H.; Hennion, F.; Heywood, K.; Hodgson, D.A.; Holland, D.; Hong, S.; Huiskes, A.; Isla, E.; Jacobs, S.; Jones, A.; Lenton, A.; Marshall, G.; Mayewski, P.A.; Meredith, M.; Metzl, N.; Monaghan, A.; Naveira-Garabato, A.; Newsham, K.; Orejas, C.; Peck, L.; Portner, H.; Rintoul, S.; Robinson, S.; Roscoe, H.; Rossi, S.; Scambos, T.; Shanklin, J.; Smetacek, V.; Speer, K.; Stevens, M.I.; Summerhayes, C.P.; Trathan, P.; Turner, J.; van der Veen, K.; Vaughan, D.; Verde, C.; Webb, D.; Wiencke, C.; Woodworth, P.; Worby, T.; Worland, R.; Yamanouchi, T.
Source Antarctic climate change and the environment; a contribution to the International Polar Year 2007-2008, edited by J. Turner, R. Bindschadler, P. Convey, G. di Prisco, E. Fahrbach, J. Gutt, D.A. Hodgson, P.A. Mayewski and C.P. Summerhayes, p.183- 298, . Publisher: Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN: 978-0-948277-22- 1
Publication Date 2009
Notes In English Ant. Acc. No: 89547. CRREL Acc. No: 65001177
Index Terms climatic change; expeditions; glacial geology; history; ice; ice sheets; meteorology; oceanography; permafrost; Antarctica; Southern Ocean; biology; climate change; International Polar Year 2007-08; IPY 2007-08 Research Publications; paleontology; research; sea ice; sea-level changes
Abstract The instrumental period began with the first voyages to the Southern Ocean during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when scientists such as Edmund Halley made observations of quantities such as geomagnetism. During the early voyages information was collected on the meteorological conditions across the Southern Ocean, ocean conditions, the sea ice extent and the terrestrial and marine biology. The continent itself was discovered in 1820, although the collection of data was sporadic through the remainder of the nineteenth century and it was not possible to venture into the inhospitable interior of Antarctica. At the start of the twentieth century stations were first operated year-round and this really began the period of organised scientific investigation in the Antarctic. Most of these stations were not operated for long periods, which is a handicap when trying to investigate climate change over the last century. The International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957/58 saw the establishment of many research stations across the continent and this period marks the beginning of many of the environmental monitoring programmes. Thankfully many of the stations are still in operation today so that we now have some 50 year records of many meteorological parameters. The ocean areas around the Antarctic have been investigated far less than the continent itself. Here we are reliant on ship observations that have mostly been made during the summer months. Satellite observations can help in monitoring the surface of the ocean, but not the layers below. Even here quantities such as sea ice extent have only been monitored since the late 1970s, when microwave technology could be flown on satellites.
Publication Type monograph
Record ID 304433