Title Cold comfort; systematics and biology of Antarctic bryozoans
Author Winston, J.E.
Author Affil Winston, J.E., Virginia Museum of Natural History, Department of Marine Biology, Martinsville, VA
Source p.205-221, ; Smithsonian at the poles, Washington, DC, May 3-4, 2007, edited by I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller. Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC, United States. ISBN: 978-0-9788460-1-50-9788460-1- X
Publication Date 2009
Notes In English. 125 refs. Ant. Acc. No: 86089
Index Terms Antarctica; Southern Ocean; biomass; Bryozoa; cold adaptation; ecology; ecosystems; fresh-water environment; habitat; International Polar Year 2007-08; Invertebrata; IPY 2007-08 Research Publications; marine environment; physiology; predation; reproduction; taxonomy
Abstract Antarctic bryozoans are spectacular. They are often larger and more colorful than their temperate relatives. Antarctic bryozoans are also outstanding in their diversity. Well over 300 species have been described, and new descriptions continue to appear. In the U.S. Antarctic Research Program (USARP) collections we have identified 389 species so far, mostly belonging to the Cheilostomata, the dominant order in Recent seas. Much about their ecology can be learned from study of the abundant material preserved in the USARP collections. Yearly growth bands demonstrate that colonies may live for decades and that growth rates are very close to those of related temperate species. The presence of embryos in the brood chambers of many species allows determination of seasonality of reproduction and fecundity of colonies of different sizes. A large proportion of Antarctic bryozoan species (81% for cheilostomes) are endemic. Endemic groups include bizarre and unusual forms in which polymorphism, the occurrence of individuals specialized to perform different tasks, is highly developed. Behavioral studies carried out with living colonies in the Antarctic have shown how different polymorphs function in cleaning and protecting colonies from trespassers or predators: capturing motile animals such as amphipods, polychaetes, and nematodes and sweeping colonies free of debris.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10088/6830
Publication Type monograph
Record ID 292168